Adam C. English describes the removal of the relics from Myra as "essentially a holy robbery"  and notes that the thieves were not only afraid of being caught or chased after by the locals, but also the power of Saint Nicholas himself. Prior to the translation of Nicholas's relics to Bari, his cult had been known in western Europe, but it had not been extremely popular. After the relics were brought to Bari , they continued to produce "myrrh", much to the joy of their new owners. Vials of myrrh from his relics have been taken all over the world for centuries, and can still be obtained from his church in Bari.
Even up to the present day, a flask of manna is extracted from the tomb of Saint Nicholas every year on 6 December the Saint's feast day by the clergy of the basilica. The myrrh is collected from a sarcophagus which is located in the basilica vault and could be obtained in the shop nearby. The liquid gradually seeps out of the tomb, but it is unclear whether it originates from the body within the tomb, or from the marble itself; since the town of Bari is a harbour, and the tomb is below sea level , there have been several natural explanations proposed for the manna fluid, including the transfer of seawater to the tomb by capillary action.
In , a vault in the crypt underneath the Basilica di San Nicola was dedicated as an Orthodox chapel with an iconostasis in commemoration of the recent lifting of the anathemas the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches had issued against each other during the Great Schism in Nicholas in Bari were sent on loan to Moscow.
The relic was on display for veneration at Christ the Savior Cathedral before being taken to St. Petersburg in mid-June prior to returning to Bari. The sailors from Bari only took the main bones of Nicholas's skeleton, leaving all the minor fragments in the grave. Because of Nicholas's skeleton's long confinement in Myra, after it was brought to Bari, the demand for pieces of it rose.
Peter in June The clergy at Bari strategically gave away samples of Nicholas's bones to promote the cult and enhance its prestige. An Irish tradition states that the relics of Saint Nicholas are also reputed to have been stolen from Myra by local Norman crusading knights in the twelfth century and buried near Thomastown , County Kilkenny , where a stone slab marks the site locally believed to be his grave.
Whereas the devotional importance of relics and the economics associated with pilgrimages caused the remains of most saints to be divided up and spread over numerous churches in several countries, Saint Nicholas is unusual in that most of his bones have been preserved in one spot: his grave crypt in Bari. Even with the allegedly continuing miracle of the manna, the archdiocese of Bari has allowed for one scientific survey of the bones.
In , at the University of Manchester , researchers Caroline Wilkinson and Fraco Introna reconstructed the saint's face based on Martino's examination.
Among the Greeks and Italians he is a favorite of sailors, fishermen , ships and sailing. As such he has become over time the patron saint of several cities maintaining harbours. In centuries of Greek folklore , Nicholas was seen as "The Lord of the Sea", often described by modern Greek scholars as a kind of Christianized version of Poseidon.
In modern Greece, he is still easily among the most recognizable saints and 6 December finds many cities celebrating their patron saint. He is also the patron saint of all of Greece and particularly of the Hellenic Navy. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Saint Nicholas's memory is celebrated on almost every Thursday of the year together with the Apostles with special hymns to him which are found in the liturgical book known as the Octoechos.
Soon after the transfer of Saint Nicholas's relics from Myra to Bari, a Russian version of his Life and an account of the transfer of his relics were written by a contemporary to this event. Many Orthodox churches will have his icon , even if they are not named after him. Nicholas had a reputation for secret gift-giving, such as putting coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him, a practice celebrated on his feast day , 6 December.
For those who still observe the Julian calendar the celebration will currently take place thirteen days later than it happens in the Gregorian calendar and Revised Julian calendar. As part of this celebration, youths performed the functions of priests and bishops, and exercised rule over their elders. Today, Saint Nicholas is still celebrated as a great gift-giver in several Western European and Central European countries. According to one source, in medieval times nuns used the night of 6 December to deposit baskets of food and clothes anonymously at the doorsteps of the needy.
According to another source, on 6 December every sailor or ex-sailor of the Low Countries which at that time was virtually all of the male population would descend to the harbour towns to participate in a church celebration for their patron saint. On the way back they would stop at one of the various Nicholas fairs to buy some hard-to-come-by goods, gifts for their loved ones and invariably some little presents for their children.
While the real gifts would only be presented at Christmas, the little presents for the children were given right away, courtesy of Saint Nicholas. This and his miracle of him resurrecting the three butchered children made Saint Nicholas a patron saint of children and later students as well. When the Dutch established the colony of New Amsterdam , they brought the legend and traditions of Sinterklaas with them. Hageman, of New Brunswick Theological Seminary, maintains that the tradition of celebrating Sinterklaas in New York existed in the early settlements of the Hudson Valley , although by the early nineteenth century had fallen by the way.
Nicholas Park , located at the intersection of St. Nicholas Avenue and th Street, in an area originally settled by Dutch farmers, is named for St. Nicholas of Myra. Saint Nicholas is a popular subject portrayed on countless Eastern Orthodox icons , particularly Russian and Serbian ones.
He is depicted as an Orthodox bishop, wearing the omophorion and holding a Gospel Book. Sometimes he is depicted wearing the Eastern Orthodox mitre , sometimes he is bareheaded. Iconographically, Nicholas is depicted as an elderly man with a short, full, white, fluffy beard and balding head. In commemoration of the miracle attributed to him by tradition at the Council of Nicea , he is sometimes depicted with Christ over his left shoulder holding out a Gospel Book to him and the Theotokos over his right shoulder holding the omophorion.
Because of his patronage of mariners, occasionally Saint Nicholas will be shown standing in a boat or rescuing drowning sailors; Medieval Chants and Polyphony, image on the cover of the Book of Hours of Duke of Berry, In depictions of Saint Nicholas from Bari, he is usually shown as dark-skinned , probably to emphasize his foreign origin. The episode with the three dowries is commemorated by showing him holding in his hand either three purses, three coins or three balls of gold.
Depending on whether he is depicted as patron saint of children or sailors, his images will be completed by a background showing ships, children or three figures climbing out of a wooden barrel the three slaughtered children he resurrected. In a strange twist, the three gold balls referring to the dowry affair are sometimes metaphorically interpreted as being oranges or other fruits. As in the Low Countries in medieval times oranges most frequently came from Spain, this led to the belief that the Saint lives in Spain and comes to visit every winter bringing them oranges, other 'wintry' fruits and tales of magical creatures.
In , Benjamin Britten completed a cantata , Saint Nicolas on a text by Eric Crozier which covers the saint's legendary life in a dramatic sequence of events. A tenor soloist appears as Saint Nicolas, with a mixed choir, boys singers, strings, piano duet, organ and percussion.
Just Who Is Santa Claus?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 18 November This article is about the fourth-century Christian saint. For the gift-bearing figure in modern folklore and popular culture, see Santa Claus. For other uses, see Saint Nicholas disambiguation.
See also: Tomb of Saint Nicholas. Saints portal. The date of their death rather than their birth is commemorated. Wheeler and Jona Lendering both note that the legends of Saint Nicholas are filled with sets of three, which may be symbolic for Nicholas's vehement defense of the Holy Trinity. Catholic Book Publishing. Saint Nicholas Center. Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 4 April Nicholas Center.
Archived from the original on 10 October Carl Reiner. Shimmer and Shine : " Santa's Little Genies ". Bunsen is a Beast : " Bunsen Saves Christmas ". Tom Bosley. Johnny Bravo : " Twas the Night ". Johnny mistakes Santa for a burglar and accidentally knocks him out, forcing him to take over for Santa. At the end of the episode, Santa gives Johnny boxing gloves, vowing that next year is "Round 2". Bruce McGill. Dexter's Laboratory : " Dexter Vs. Santa's Claws ". Dexter attacks Santa and shaves his beard in an attempt to prove that he is really his dad in a costume.
A Johnny Bravo Christmas.
Life Story Of Father Christmas And His Transformation Into Santa Claus: Results
In the second Johnny Bravo Christmas episode, Johnny travels to the North Pole when he forgets to send his and his mother's letters to Santa. Upon being reminded of the previous episode's events, Santa upholds his promise to Johnny.
- Santa Claus | Christmas Specials Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia.
- Alices Adventures In Wonderland - Illustrated By Arthur Rackham;
- Nicholas: The Epic Journey from Saint to Santa Claus!
- Rise of the Guardians;
- Christmas traditions: Advent calendars, mince pies and the story of Santa Claus.
Santa is tricked into believing that all the kids in the world are naughty after Princess Morbucks switches the headlines around on his naughty and nice lists. Tom Kane and Phil LaMarr.